Could the physical world be emergent instead of fundamental, and why should we ask?

The next Naturwissenschaftscafé will take place on Wednesday the 6th of June at 20:00 in Wuk. This time Marius will give us an introduction into the paper “Could the physical world be emergent instead of fundamental, and why should we ask?”, which was published by his supervisor Markus Müller.

There are two versions of this paper, a long one and a short one. Both are on the arxiv under the following links:

https://arxiv.org/pdf/1712.01816.pdf  (short version)

https://arxiv.org/pdf/1712.01826.pdf  (Full version)

And additionally you can find a presentation Markus Müller gave about this topic under:
http://mpmueller.net/theory.html

 

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The physical interpretation of probability and the quantum theory

The next Naturwissenschaftscafé will take place on the 9th of May at 20:00 in Wuk. This time Flavio will talk about The physical interpretation of probability and the quantum theory. You may find following suggested literature helpful:

  • Book:
    “Philosophy and Probability” by Timothy Childers (pp. 33-36)
  • Extended conference paper:
    “The physical motivations for a propensity interpretation of probability, and the reactions of the community of quantum physicists” by Flavio

In order to get one of the above texts please contact e.schwarzhans(at)gmx.at .

Why (not) vote? – A mathematical approach to the theory of Elections, grassroots democracy & the challenges of decision making in big groups

The next meeting will be on the 11th of April at 20:00, as always in Café Tunnel.
This times topic is Why (not) vote? – A mathematical approach to the theory of Elections, grassroots democracy & the challenges of decision making in big groups” and will be presented by Claude.

Abstract:
According to the current democratic Ideal elections ought to reflect the “will of the people”. We will examine current election methods and discuss alternative societal designs. Both will prove  to be challenging.

Basic considerations:

  • What is an election?
  • How do formal rules influence elections?
  • Can there be fair elections and how should they look like?

All of this will be analyzed using established mathematical methods of the field of economics (so called Public Choice Theory). Apart from classical philosophical-idealistic democracy theories we will see that fair elections constitute a complex as well as a hardly reachable ideal.
At the end of the discussion probably more new questions will have appeared, than we answered. On that account we will have established an exceptional and differentiated point of view on, up to this point accepted, fundamental assumptions of our society.

Suggested literature (in German):
Mathematik der Wahl: Das Arrow-Theorem – Karl Geller

  • Basic: Chapter 5.1 will probably be covered by the Talk.
  • Bonus: Chapter 5.2 bonus material.

Since the literature is neither published nor otherwise available please contact Manu (e.schwarzhans@gmx.at) in order to get it.

Prisoners Dilemma Tournaments

The next meeting will take place on the 15.11. at 20:00 at the Tunnel Vienna.
The topic this time is going to be: Prisoners Dilemma Tournaments

Please have a look at the literature provided:

1)  Definition and Basic Game Theory of the Prisoners Dilemma

http://policonomics.com/lp-game-theory2-prisoners-dilemma/

This website contains a lot of information on game theory in general and gives an introduction. You can read the linked page but also proceed to further topics or clarify certain terms in previous basic chapters. In the NWC however we will focus on the concept of the Prisoners Dilemma.

2) Expand the concept: Iterated Prisoners Dilemma

The case becomes interesting once the Dilemma is iterated several times and/or played among different people using their own strategy. The optimal strategies in such tournaments lead to different interpretation and have significance in many fields. Here are 3 articles presenting different successful strategies. All shortly review what the Prisoners Dilemma is ( you might want to skip these parts )

Tit for Tat and altruism:
https://www.forbes.com/sites/rogerkay/2011/12/19/generous-tit-for-tat-a-winning-strategy/
Zero Determinant Games and the evolution of cooperation:
https://www.quantamagazine.org/game-theory-explains-how-cooperation-evolved-20150212/
Tribalism and the importance of communication:
http://nautil.us/issue/52/the-hive/is-tribalism-a-natural-malfunction

Additionally: These are some online Simulators to check the payoff of your own strategies.  Hope you manage to navigate through the Interface.

http://www.iterated-prisoners-dilemma.net/
http://www.spatialised-prisoners-dilemma.net

3) Sourcecodes

Stanfords Plato:https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/prisoner-dilemma/

A generalization of the IPD is allowing strategies chosen due to probabilities. The so called Stochastic Iterated Prisoner Dilemma has quite a mathematical body (see also zero determinant games). Take a dip with google!

Additional historic information on IPD Tournaments:

https://egtheory.wordpress.com/2015/03/02/ipd/
http://axelrod.readthedocs.io/en/stable/reference/description.html

If you proceed on this page with NEXT you will find all the different strategies together with their code which took stage during Axelrods first IPD Contest.

Gödel’s incompleteness theorem

Responsible: Moritz Kriegleder

To read I have 3 levels of literature increasing in depth:

Level 1 Tall:

http://www.nytimes.com/2005/05/01/books/review/incompleteness-waiting-for-godel.html?_r=1

As a short introduction and a little historical background this will be the starting point of our discussion.
We all have a lot to do, so if you’ve read and thought about this, we can have a good chat.

Level 2 Grande:

http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/goedel-incompleteness/

As always I recommend the stanford library, mathematically precise but still a lot historical and philosophical context.
I will mainly talk about this text and if you want to, you can also have a look.

Level 3 Venti:

http://www.logicmatters.net/resources/pdfs/gwt/GWT2f.pdf

Goedel without tears is a really nice starting point for thorough understanding that helps people that dont know all set theorie
and theoretical informatics to tackle goedels points in a complete mathematical way. I started the book in summer and
really liked it but didnt have the time to finish it.

Level Goedel:
If these 200 pages are still not enough for you or you’re just interested in the OG paper,
here is the modern translation of the original text: http://www.research.ibm.com/people/h/hirzel/papers/canon00-goedel.pdf